human papillomavirus

human papillomavirus molecule

Papillomavirus infection (human papillomavirus, papillomavirus) is an oncogenic disease that manifests itself in the form of papillary formations (warts, warts) on the human skin or in the genital area. Men and women are almost equally susceptible to the virus.

It is worth noting that such an infection can indicate the formation of a malignant tumor. Today, more than 100 species of this virus are known in medicine. About 30 of them affect only the female genitals.

The World Health Organization studied HPV - the human papillomavirus is called so briefly, and found that more than 60% of people on Earth are infected with it. In addition, some of them are only carriers, while in others it manifests itself in the form of papillomatosis of the skin, mucous membranes, but in some cases the human papillomavirus causes cell degeneration and cancer.

Etiology

About 60% of the world population are potential carriers of human papillomavirus infection. In most cases, the virus is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person. In addition, the provoking factors are as follows:

  • the onset of sexual activity at an early age;
  • unprotected sex, frequent switching of sexual partners;
  • chronic inflammation in the genital area, infectious diseases of the genitourinary system;
  • frequent miscarriages;
  • weak immunity;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • non-compliance with personal hygiene rules.

As medical practice shows, women are in the main risk group. The probability of "catching" such a disease is quite high in people aged 20-45 years. That is, those who lead an active sex life.

general symptoms

The symptoms of this type of infection depend on what exactly was the triggering factor. The disease does not have a single clinical picture. However, the following symptoms can be distinguished:

  • the formation of warts;
  • skin irritation in the genital area;
  • discomfort during intercourse;
  • redness and partial itching.

At the same time, it is worth noting that symptoms in the form of irritation and itching of the skin can indicate another disease. Therefore, self-medication is not worth it in any case. With these symptoms, it is best to immediately consult a dermatologist.

Warts most often appear in the following locations:

  • on the skin of the palms, soles of the feet;
  • in the genital area;
  • in the oral cavity.

In more severe cases, this type of infection can develop in the cervix, bladder, and vagina. The only way to get rid of warts is through surgery. Human papillomavirus infection in women can lead to cervical cancer. As for men, the oncogenic factor is observed much less frequently.

It is also worth noting that in the early stages of development, a disease of this type of symptoms practically does not give. This is what often leads to an oncogenic risk factor for infection.

pathogenesis

Infection with the virus is only possible if a healthy person has microtrauma of Organs genitals. In this case, the papillomavirus enters the body of a healthy person and begins to develop.

The incubation period of a type of oncogenic virus can last from several months to several years, without showing any symptoms. In other words, an already infected person can be a carrier and not be aware of it.

HPV in women

As already mentioned, women aged 20 to 45 are more susceptible to the virus. But here it is worth noting the fact that in the main risk group are those who frequently change their sexual partner and have unprotected sex.

This type of infection in women is divided into the following groups:

  • high oncogenicity;
  • low oncogenicity;
  • non-oncogenic type.

The most dangerous for women's health is a high-oncogenic type infection. It almost always leads to cancer - a malignant tumor, cancer of the cervix. The risk of such a pathology development is 90%. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that in the early stages of development, the disease does not have symptoms. Occasionally, small warts may appear on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

With a highly oncogenic type of infection, warts form. These are wart-like formations, but with jagged edges. Such formations can appear on the vagina, anus, on the perineum. Sometimes warts can take the form of blisters filled with fluid, which eventually burst and give off an unpleasant odor.

A high type of HPV infection can also cause cancer of the vagina and vulva. In rarer clinical cases, nasopharyngeal cancer is possible. It should be noted that it is almost impossible to completely cure a high oncogenic form of HPV.

papilloma virus in men

Papillomavirus infection in men can occur without any symptoms. It is noteworthy that in the main risk group, men who frequently change sexual partners have unprotected sex.

Pathological formations are located in such places:

  • on the head and body of the penis;
  • on the skin of the scrotum;
  • in the perineum;
  • on the mucous membrane.

Such formations can be grouped. As a rule, they do not cause itching and other unpleasant sensations. Very rarely, they may be accompanied by itching or burning only during intercourse.

Such a virus in men can take the form of high oncogenicity. This leads to cancer of Organs genitals. But, if you start treatment on time, the risk of oncogenic diseases is minimized. Warts caused by the HPV virus are removed surgically or with special chemical solutions. Along the way, antiviral drugs are prescribed. Therefore, in the early stages of the development of this type of disease in men, it can be completely eliminated.

human papillomavirus in women and men

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of HPV infection consists of several steps. Initially, an examination is carried out by a doctor and anamnesis is explained. If the disease is suspected in women, the primary examination should be performed by a gynecologist. After that, the following tests can be prescribed:

  • vaginal scraping;
  • vaginal tissue biopsy;
  • PCR analysis.

The latter allows not only to accurately establish the diagnosis, but also to determine the cause of the development of the pathological process, its form of development. If there is a risk of developing an oncological disease, a general and biochemical blood test, instrumental research methods are additionally prescribed.

Colposcopy is mandatory if HPV infection is suspected. This is an examination of the cervix, to identify profound pathological changes.

As for men, the diagnosis has approximately the same picture. After examination by a urologist or surgeon, a referral for testing is given.

Only according to the results of the diagnosis can a competent doctor prescribe the correct course of treatment. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the lower the risk of complications.

Treatment

At the moment, there is no drug in medicine that can purposefully destroy the HPV virus. Therefore, the treatment is complex. Not only the form of the disease is taken into account, but also the cause of its occurrence. It is also worth mentioning that a person who has been sick or is sick with the HPV virus should be regularly examined by the attending physician. It is possible to completely cure the papilloma virus only in the early stages. In any case, the risk of developing cancer or the formation of a malignant tumor is always present. Avoiding the virus is easier than getting rid of it.

Treatment of papillomavirus infection can be conditionally divided into the following steps:

  • removal of warts or warts;
  • drug therapy to prevent new formations;
  • therapy with the aim of strengthening the immune system.

It should be noted that such a treatment program is applicable only if there is no risk of developing a malignant tumor or sexually transmitted infections. If the latter is confirmed, the treatment program includes drugs to eliminate the underlying disease. Antiviral drugs are used in any case. In most cases, broad-spectrum drugs are prescribed. However, the use of such drugs does not exclude recurrence of the disease.

It is much more difficult to cure the HPV virus if it becomes chronic and has a high oncogenic factor. In this case, additional tests are prescribed and chemotherapy is used.

Treatment of human papillomavirus is only possible by a competent specialist. Self-medication is unacceptable here as the HPV virus is recognized as oncogenic. So, in most cases, it is quite difficult to cure it. Even the surgical removal of warts or genital warts does not rule out their re-formation.

How to treat the papillomavirus correctly, only an expert can tell. Using folk remedies to cure HPV is not enough. Therefore, if symptoms of the disease are detected, you should immediately seek competent medical help.

Prevention

One of the most effective preventive measures is vaccination against the virus. This makes it possible to prevent the development in the body of not only HPV infection, but also cervical cancer. In addition, the following rules must be followed:

  • only protected sex;
  • strengthening the immune system;
  • regular examination by a gynecologist or urologist;
  • personal hygiene.

You need to carefully monitor your health, do not abuse alcohol, smoke. As for intimate life, if possible, the frequent exchange of sexual partners should be excluded. With symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor and not self-medicate.