The main types of analyzes for papilloma, features of its collection

The papillomavirus or HPV is a microorganism that has dozens of subspecies. Depending on the strain of the virus a person has, certain changes occur in the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs.

HPVs related to oncogenic subspecies are especially dangerous, that is, they increase the risk of developing malignant diseases. An analysis of the papilloma, done at the time, helps to establish the strain of the papillomavirus and, consequently, to receive the antiviral treatment, which is also the prevention of cancer.

Causes of HPV

Human papillomavirus is one of the most widespread viruses worldwide.

It is believed that one or more strains of this microorganism can be found in almost 90% of the population. This wide distribution of HPV is due to the ease of its transmission.

The virus is only transmitted from person to person, but in a variety of ways. The most basic is sexual, and it can be traditional or oral or anal sexual contact. HPV can pass from the mother during childbirth to the baby, and often, after a while, papillomas are detected in the child's mouth and throat.

Often, the papillomavirus is transmitted by contact, that is, through damaged skin or when using certain personal items by different people. The microorganism perfectly maintains its viability in a humid and warm environment, so it is easy to become its owner after visiting a bath or pool.

Some features of sexual activity increase the risk of infection. This is its early onset, frequent change of partners, sexually transmitted diseases, miscarriages in women. In most cases, women are sexually infected with HPV, which doctors associate with the anatomical characteristics of the structures of their genitals.

The papillomavirus does not always appear immediately, in most cases, several months and years pass before its external manifestation on the skin and mucous membranes.

Several provoking factors are to blame for the activation of the pathogen, their group includes:

  • Pronounced weakening of the immune system. This is observed after severe infectious diseases, after prolonged treatment with antibiotics, with frequent respiratory illnesses.
  • The negative impact of prolonged and frequent psycho-emotional stress.
  • The presence of chronic diseases of the genital area, urinary organs, digestive tract.
  • avitaminosis.
  • Bad habits - long-term smoking, alcohol abuse.

Activation of the virus leads to the fact that it accumulates in large quantities in a certain area of the body or in the mucous membranes and changes the structure and function of the cells located here. The result of this process is the appearance of warts and papillomas.

Particularly dangerous are genital warts that appear on the external genitalia and in women inside the vagina. The growths on the skin can be single and multiple, they are often injured, which increases the risk of degeneration from normal to atypical cells.

How and why is an analysis done for human papillomavirus?

human papillomavirus molecules

When papillomas appear on the human body, a dermatologist can definitely say that a virus is present in that patient's body.

But for the treatment to be as effective as possible, laboratory diagnoses are needed to determine the type of virus and its quantity in the body.

It is imperative to determine the HPV strain if papillomatous growths are detected:

  • In the external genitalia, in women in the vagina and in men in the penis and urethra.
  • In the throat and mouth area.
  • around the anus.

The analysis in this case makes it possible to establish whether the virus belongs to an oncogenic or non-oncogenic group.

This allows the doctor to predict the outcome of the disease and prescribe a treatment that avoids the likelihood of developing a malignant lesion. An analysis is required for human papillomavirus, and if precancerous conditions are detected, in women it is dysplasia or leukoplakia of the cervix.

A Papillomavirus test is recommended for all women after age 30. Ideally, it should be repeated once every three to five years. This attitude towards health will allow you to identify the development of atypical cells in the early stages of their appearance.

To determine HPV in the human body, several diagnostic methods have been developed. The patient takes blood for analysis, scraping and smear in women of the cervical canal and cervix. In men, cells from the mucous layer of the urethra, the secret of the prostate, are needed for analysis.

Before doing the analysis, it is recommended to follow several rules. Male patients should not urinate for an hour and a half. A woman during the previous night's hygiene should not shower and use antibacterial detergents.

If necessary, if HPV is suspected, a biopsy is performed. That is, a small piece of tissue is taken from the cellular transformation area.

diagnostic methods

Modern medical centers have several methods to detect HPV in the human body. The most used are the following:

  • PCR - polymerase chain reaction. This method is based on the detection of human papillomavirus DNA, which makes it possible to find this microorganism with almost the highest probability. The study requires biological fluids - blood, saliva, urine, amniotic fluid, or scraping of the mucous layer of the cervix or urethra. DNA diagnosis also helps to establish the type of microorganism and its quantitative proportion at the time of sampling.
  • The Digin test is a modern and highly sensitive analysis that allows you to assign a virus to one of the hundred strains and determine its oncogenicity. To analyze the papilloma, it is necessary to shave the vagina or urethra. The interpretation of the results obtained is performed by a physician. The Digin test makes it possible to detect the concentration of the virus, indicating a high risk of degeneration of altered cells into cancerous ones. Therefore, this study is necessary to prescribe the most effective preventive treatment.

In case of positive test results or in case of doubtful results, a second diagnosis is prescribed. It allows you to evaluate treatment results and accurately determine whether a person is infected with HPV.

But even with negative results, anyone, if possible, should be screened periodically, as it is possible to become infected with the virus at any time.

Characteristics of research in women

contacting a doctor for a human papillomavirus

The diagnosis of papillomavirus in women has its own characteristics. The most informative is a scraping qualitatively taken from the area of visible changes and the cervical canal.

The material is obtained using a special brush, while making a smear for cytology. In some cases, a universal medical probe can be used for sampling. The material should not be taken during menstruation as it will give unreliable results.

Patients of a gynecologist who have not reached the age of thirty receive only cytology. Detection of HPV before age 30 is not informative - infection in young people is believed to occur secretly.

After 30 years, cytology is prescribed along with tests for papillomavirus. At this point, it is important not to miss the moment that indicates the degeneration of normal cells into cancer cells.

The role of genotyping?

Genotyping is the laboratory determination of the type of virus. Such a study has several advantages, they are:

  • Simultaneous detection of several virus strains.
  • Determination of the degree of oncogenicity of HPV. Cervical cancer is believed to occur if a woman has HPV types 16 and 18.
  • The possibility of recognizing reinfection of persistent (chronic) infection during repeated testing.

The identification of oncogenic strains allows the physician to choose the treatment regimen that will provide the maximum antiviral effect in the body and provide preventive prevention of the development of cancers.

Regenotyping shows the effectiveness of the therapy, since reinfection with the same strain is not possible.

Pricing for tests

The cost of testing for the presence of human papillomavirus in the body depends on which test is scheduled.

Conventional CRP diagnosis in most clinics is inexpensive. The same method with the determination of several types of virus and its quantitative presence in the organism is already more expensive. The highest cost of the Dijin test.